Now that you’ve loaded the driver package, you’re ready to create a database object, a sql.DB.

To create a sql.DB, you use sql.Open(). This returns a *sql.DB:

func main() {
	db, err := sql.Open("mysql",
	if err != nil {
	defer db.Close()

In the example shown, we’re illustrating several things:

  1. The first argument to sql.Open is the driver name. This is the string that the driver used to register itself with database/sql, and is conventionally the same as the package name to avoid confusion. For example, it’s mysql for Some drivers do not follow the convention and use the database name, e.g. sqlite3 for and postgres for
  2. The second argument is a driver-specific syntax that tells the driver how to access the underlying datastore. In this example, we’re connecting to the “hello” database inside a local MySQL server instance.
  3. You should (almost) always check and handle errors returned from all database/sql operations. There are a few special cases that we’ll discuss later where it doesn’t make sense to do this.
  4. It is idiomatic to defer db.Close() if the sql.DB should not have a lifetime beyond the scope of the function.

Perhaps counter-intuitively, sql.Open() does not establish any connections to the database, nor does it validate driver connection parameters. Instead, it simply prepares the database abstraction for later use. The first actual connection to the underlying datastore will be established lazily, when it’s needed for the first time. If you want to check right away that the database is available and accessible (for example, check that you can establish a network connection and log in), use db.Ping() to do that, and remember to check for errors:

err = db.Ping()
if err != nil {
	// do something here

Although it’s idiomatic to Close() the database when you’re finished with it, the sql.DB object is designed to be long-lived. Don’t Open() and Close() databases frequently. Instead, create one sql.DB object for each distinct datastore you need to access, and keep it until the program is done accessing that datastore. Pass it around as needed, or make it available somehow globally, but keep it open. And don’t Open() and Close() from a short-lived function. Instead, pass the sql.DB into that short-lived function as an argument.

If you don’t treat the sql.DB as a long-lived object, you could experience problems such as poor reuse and sharing of connections, running out of available network resources, or sporadic failures due to a lot of TCP connections remaining in TIME_WAIT status. Such problems are signs that you’re not using database/sql as it was designed.

Now it’s time to use your sql.DB object.

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